Parents are unsure
Not a few parents are unsure how to keep it from the second year of life with the milk. One reason for this is the opinion of experts that schoolchildren drink too little and infants drink too much milk. Basically, children without an increased risk of allergies can easily drink cow's milk as part of a balanced mixed diet from the age of two. Only in children who are at risk of allergy, the use of milk substitute makes sense. Here, for example, soy food is very good. This also affects children who suffer from atopic dermatitis. It is advisable to clarify this individually with a pediatrician.
Often parents rely on special toddler milk or third-consecutive milk. These products are touted with an enrichment of iron or iodine to cow's milk. However, infants take these nutrients predominantly with normal family nutrition. It is also to be noted that these milk products are often enriched with granulated sugar and provided with vanilla or fruit flavor. The children quickly get used to this sweet vanilla or fruit flavor and do not want to drink cow's milk anymore.
How much milk is good for children?
When taking milk in infants, the amount is crucial. Because too much protein can overload the kidneys and the metabolism too much. Therefore, for children between one and three years, a daily protein intake of about 2.2 g per kg of body weight and day is recommended. Experts recommend no more than 350 to 400 ml of milk per day. Cow's milk alone has a protein content of 3.3 to 3.4 grams per 100 ml. Thus, about 12 g of protein per day come together. An example: If the child has a weight of 10 kg, it does not need more than 22 g of protein per day. Excessive protein intake in infancy may later lead to obesity.
In Germany, the intake of protein in infants is up to three times higher than recommended by the German Nutrition Society. The reason for this is the excessive consumption of other protein-containing foods such as meat, sausage, eggs and other dairy products. As the protein requirement increases with age, it can be covered with other dairy products such as cheese or yoghurt in addition to milk.
Which milk is the right one For children?
But which milk is right for the child? Parents are spoiled for choice, as supermarkets' refrigerated shelves offer many kinds of milk. Whether pasteurized milk or H-milk, in a tetra pack or in a bottle. For whole milk, the fat content is 3.5 percent. Low-fat milk has a fat content of 1.5 percent fat. For skimmed milk, however, this is 0.3 percent. This is not suitable for children. There is also milk with a natural fat content of at least 3.7 percent. In a normal-weight child, it is recommended to use low-fat milk with 1.5 percent fat. In children with marked underweight, fatter milk should be used.
Cow's milk is not optimal for children.
Cow's milk is an important nutrient source for infants because it contains calcium. However, important nutrients in cow's milk are not contained enough to provide optimal care for toddlers. Thus, the content of iron and vitamin D for the physical and intellectual development of the child is too low. Vitamin D in particular has an important function for the development of healthy bones and teeth. Also, the proportion of iodine that infants need for their mental development in cow's milk is very low. For a healthy diet, the intake of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids is necessary.
However, these are contained in normal cow milk only to a small extent. They are important for the development of brain and nerve cells and can not be produced by the body itself. Also, some babies are allergic to cow's milk. In the medium term, milk can promote atopic dermatitis and in general increase the susceptibility to allergies. Also for these reasons, it is advisable to give babies, at least in the first year of life, no cow's milk. The use of other dairy products should also be limited during this time and also in the following months. Cow's milk should therefore not be used as a substitute for breast milk. There are now very good breast milk substitutes.
Optimal nutrition with children's milk.
For optimal nutrition of children, it is recommended to restrict the protein intake. So it is better, instead of using normal cow's milk, to use milk specially adapted to the needs of toddlers. This is commercially available and based on cow's milk, which has been deprived of part of the protein content. In addition, children's milk iron, iodine, vitamin D and the omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid are added in a child-friendly amount - the need for these vital and developmentally necessary nutrients is optimally covered.
Avoid vitamin loss in milk.
Milk is heated to preserve it and kill germs. Thus, pasteurized milk is heated to 71 to 74 ° C for 15 to 30 seconds and then is stable for five to eight days. H-milk is UHT for 3 seconds at 135 to 150 ° C and is then germ-free. She keeps herself uncooled for at least four weeks. Raw milk and preferred milk, ie unheated milk, are not recommended for toddlers. Incidentally, due to the low heating time, the vitamin loss in low-fat milk and pasteurized milk is around 10 to 20 percent. However, many vitamins are light-sensitive, so light-shielded packaging is preferable. For this purpose are about brown glass bottles or milk in a tetra pack.