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The cow's milk, popular and yet often demonized.

The milk of the milk, at least as far as the quantity is concerned.

all about cow's milk - © CC0 - Pixaba - Capri23auto

Cow's milk is very popular - knowledge about cow's milk, dairy cows and production. Our dairy cows are descended from the Eurasian aurochs. The dairy cow is designated as such after first calving when producing breast milk. In the first few weeks after calving, the mother cows feed her calf. Milk production increases sharply after birth and is at its peak seven weeks after calving. The production will last about 2 months in production until it drops again.
For maximum fertility, the dairy cow is inseminated again after three months. A dairy cow serves about three years of milk production.
She gives about 30 liters a day. This amount supplies about 35 people.

cow's milk - © CC0 - Pixabay - Ehrecke

The production and shelf life of cow's milk

From pasteurization to UHT

The product is brought to the dairy after collection and centrifuged while being cleaned of impurities such as dust particles. In addition, the cream is separated and thus achieved the desired level of fat. After the centrifuge, the heat treatment of the milk is carried out to preserve it. The following preservation procedures are available:
cow's milk - © CC0 - Pixabay - Ehrecke

Condensation of cow's milk

Condensing: This is how the condensed milk is made. In the heated vacuum container of the milk liquid is removed with the addition of sugar up to 70% of the liquid. The condensed milk becomes so viscous and rich in nutrients.
cow's milk - © CC0 - Pixabay - Ehrecke

The pasteurization of cow's milk

Pasteurisation is used when the product is supposed to be quasi fresh but still short-lived. In this process, the liquid is heated briefly, but never above 100 ° C. Molds and yeasts are killed in this way. Germ-free, the product is not, but germ-free.
cow's milk - © CC0 - Pixabay - Ehrecke

Sterilization of the milk

For lasting durability

Sterilization preserves food for a long time. The sterile milk is heated for 15 to 20 minutes at 110 to 135 ° C in the sealed airtight packaging. The sterile milk is germ-free and can be stored for 6-12 months. The intense heating destroys heat-sensitive vitamins that we need for our health. In addition, the taste changes greatly. For these reasons, sterile milk in Germany hardly plays a role in drinking milk.
cow's milk - © CC0 - Pixabay - Alexas_Fotos

UHT of the milk

H-milk production

In UHT, the so-called H-milk, which is stable for up to six weeks, is produced. The liquid is heated to 135 to 150 ° C for only 2-3 seconds and then immediately cooled down to 4-5 ° C. In UHT, less vitamins are lost than in sterilization. It is more durable than when pasteurized but tastes changed and the short but strong heating lost vitamins.
cow's milk - © CC0 - Pixabay - Heidelbergerin

Milk homogenization

Finally, the homogenization follows, in which the milk liquid is pressed through the finest glands. Thus, the fat globules are reduced in size and mixed into the final product, so that the fat does not separate from the aqueous liquid and floats on the surface. The result is a full-bodied emulsion, which also promotes compatibility. Homogenization is usually done in combination with pasteurization, sterilization and UHT.

Our commercially available cow's milk is standardized in dairies by various processing methods. That is, it contains the same quality everywhere when it goes on sale or continues to be processed into dairy products such as butter, cheese and yoghurt.
cow's milk - © CC0 - Pixabay - DominikSchraudolf

What does cow's milk consist of?

Nature does not stick to tables.

It is a natural product and therefore has only approximate values when it comes from the udder. It is about 87.5% water.

Other components are:
4.7% lactose
3.5% -3.8% milkfat
3.2% -3.5% milk protein
fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E and K.
water-soluble vitamins: B1, B2, B6, B12 and C
carotene
Minerals: calcium, phosphorus and potassium
cow's milk - © CC0 - Pixabay - Gellinger
So, milk is not just rich in calcium, which is why it's best known. It also contains plenty of vitamins that are important to our health. Especially those who need fats to develop themselves. They regulate the metabolic processes and are indispensable for our body.
The presence of vitamins depends on cow feeding, processing and fat content. Whole milk contains twice as many fat-soluble vitamins as low-fat.
cow's milk - © CC0 - Pixabay - ivabalk

Cow's milk is divided into eight categories

Versatile applicable food

whole milk

The best-known standardized drinking milk is the whole milk. It contains a constant fat level of 3.5%.
low-fat milk

The low-fat or semi-skimmed variant is also standardized and has a milk fat content of 1.5% -1.8%.
raw milk

The raw milk is untreated. It contains on average 3.5-4% fat. The content is largely dependent on the feeding, season and breed. The farms are constantly monitored and subject to strict hygiene regulations.
certified milk

Is like the raw milk, only that it is filtered and sold refrigerated. The milk has a short shelf life of about six days and is therefore sold within 24 hours.
skimmed milk / skimmed milk

It is also called skimmed milk and has a maximum fat content of 0.5%. Commercially available skimmed milk is always heat treated. In the milk separator, the raw milk is separated from the fat: What is left is the plasma, which is mainly used for animal feed and then contains only 0.1-0.3% fat. Low levels of fat are returned to the plasma for humans, so that the fat content is constantly sold at 0, 5% in the trade.
cream

It is the fatty milk ingredient. Nowadays it is centrifuged. The raw milk is thrown until the heavy skimmed milk settles on the walls of the centrifuge and the light cream remains in the middle. It is then preserved to go on sale or further processed into butter. Depending on the level of fat, cream contains between 1.8 and 3.4% fat.
coffee creamer

Coffee cream is mainly used to refine tea and coffee. It contains between 10 and 15% fat. Creamer is sterilized, ultra high heated or condensed. It is not suitable for whipping cream.
Whipped cream "extra"

It has an extra high fat content of at least 36% and is even better than the usual whipped cream.

Letztes Update: 07.07.2019 11:35